For priority pollutants, the international Rhine Action Programme (RAP) aims to meet the quality objectives for the Rhine, set by the International Rhine Commission (IRC), by the year 2000.
An assessment must be carried out to define additional measures exceeding best available technology (BAT) for point sources and best environmental practice (BEP) for diffuse sources for those priority pollutants still violating the quality objectives of the Rhine after implementing BAT and BEP only. To carry out the required assessments, an excessive amount of work and money is needed, including the application of sophisticated calculation models.
For prioritizing reasons, the Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA) initiated a project called EVER, which was conducted by DHV Water BV.
EVER is the abbreviation of the Dutch equivalent for Effective Distribution of Emission Reductions (Effective Verdeling van Emissie Reducties). The aim of this project is to carry out a first and crude evaluation of the impact of abatement measures (BAT and BEP), as set by the IRC for the period 1985-1995. For those pollutants still showing a violation of the quality objectives for the Rhine in the year 1995, a range finding method is used, to predict the costs and impact of abatement measures exceeding BAT and BEP on the water quality of the Rhine. So, EVER is a management tool to prioritize the work to be done within the frame-work of the IRC, triggering the application of e.g. sophisticated calculation models for a selected number of priority pollutants.
In EVER, the prognosis of the reduction of specific discharge rates for approximately forty priority pollutants is given for twelve sub-catchment areas for the year 1995. This prognosis is used to predict concentrations at eight international monitoring locations in the Rhine basin, using the discharges and concentrations of the year 1985 as a reference. The predicted concentrations for the year 1995 are compared with the (preliminary) water quality objectives as set by the IRC. The results indicate, that for six of the selected pollutants the number of available data is too small for sound predictions. Fifteen of the selected pollutants will satisfy the water quality objectives in 1995. Twenty (half) of the selected pollutants will still violate the quality objectives at several monitoring locations. These twenty pollutants are the basis for priorities to be set within the frame-work of the IRC for phase 3 (1995-2000) of the RAP.
For these pollutants, additional abatement measures exceeding BAT and BEP are selected in EVER for the manageable groups of sources (anthropogenic non-point sources, industrial sources and municipal sources). Each measure is analyzed separately for costs and effectiveness. Finally the results of this project are integrated into a matrix system which will enable us to select the most effective mix of pollution abatement measures at the lowest costs. The result of the selected additional measures exceeding BAT and BEP shows that 17 pollutants will still violate the quality objectives.