Many constructed wetlands adequately treat BOD5, TSS, and bacteria. However, a review of nitrogen (N) data from 52 constructed and natural wetlands in the North American data base confirmed that N removal was variable. Nitrification and denitrification require aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This paper presents case histories of systems that use alternating shallow and deep water zones to create both environments. Regression analysis of N removal and N loadings in 18 shallow-deep water systems suggested that NH4+ loading (kg N/ha/day) could be used to predict effluent NH4+ values. Combinations of shallow water-emergent vegetation and deep water-submergent vegetation with low NH4+ (and TKN) loading rates can produce very low levels of discharged NH4+.
Research Article|February 01 1994
Designing Constructed Wetlands for Nitrogen Removal
Donald A. Hammer
Water Sci Technol (1994) 29 (4): 15-27.
Donald A. Hammer, Robert L. Knight; Designing Constructed Wetlands for Nitrogen Removal. Water Sci Technol 1 February 1994; 29 (4): 15–27. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1994.0148
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