A new regulatory system known as integrated pollution control (IPC) is being introduced in the UK over the period 1991-1996. This will apply to combustion processes, some coating processes and some pulp and paper mill processes. Prescribed processes will have to use control concepts based on “best available techniques” and optimisation of waste streams released to the different receiving media. BAT standards have been set for the combustion processes, but not yet for the pulping and papermaking processes. The main types of UK mill that could be affected by this new regime are non-integrated paper mills, which use imported pulp and/or wastepaper. If prescribed under IPC, mills will have to justify their raw materials/process selection and pollution abatement technologies in terms of minimising impacts to air, water and land.