Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is presented as a specialised tool for project management. Environmental assessment in different phases of the project cycle is discussed. Different approaches to the EIA process in some countries are briefly reviewed, and especially the possibilities for public participation are discussed. A number of examples of EIA in Australia, Canada, France, Germany and Spain are characterised and compared. The comparison includes four kraft pulp mills and one paper mill, and the main features of each EIA are presented.