The performance of the primary anaerobic pond at the Alsamra Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan was monitored over 48 months. Overall averages for the removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and suspended solids were 53%, 53% and 74%, respectively. An improvement in removal efficiency with increase in pond water temperature was demonstrated. A model, which takes into account the variability of raw wastewater at different locations, has been developed to describe the performance of a primary anaerobic pond in terms of a settleability ratio for the raw wastewater. The model has been verified by illustrating the high correlation between actual and predicted pond performance.