A brief review is given of the historical development and current application of flotation technology in Southern Africa. Applications in water reclamation, sludge thickening, industrial effluents and water treatment are presented on the basis of some case studies and pilot investigations. Design philosophies followed are pointed out. Research and development performed and a few innovations by local engineers and scientists are highlighted. These include combination or integration of dissolved air flotation (DAF) with filtration, presettling and powdered activated carbon, a simple aeration nozzle, surface grids for float dewatering and stabilization, and a counter-current DAF.