In autumn 1971, water pollution and poison incidents caused death in the Rhine. Aquatic life disappeared. The rulling opinion was: Clean up the waste water and life will return. It proved to be a half-truth. After treatment of waste water some organisms returned, others, particularly the migratory fish, did not. Barrages and weirs have decimated the migratory fish. Waste water gave only the final knock-out for these species. Slowly understanding arose for a harmonization between human interests and the ecosystem. In course of time the Rhine-states replaced the one-sided promotion of individual interests by the concept of integrated water management, a prerequisite for sustainable development. This contribution reflects the process of changing minds.
Research Article|April 01 1995
Pieter Huisman; From one-sided promotion of individual interests to integrated water management in the Rhine basin. Water Sci Technol 1 April 1995; 31 (8): 59–66. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0263
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