The Citarum River in West Java has important role in the economic development and prosperity of the people in West Java Province and Jakarta City. It has been exploited to support agriculture, fisheries, public water supply, industry, hydroelectric power and recreation. More than 500 industries and about five million people in the basin are the main sources of water pollution of the Citarum River. The continuing deterioration of water quality in the Citarum River has become a routine water pollution case. Therefore it is necessary to solve the river pollution problems and upgrade the water quality. A study on water quality management of the Citarum River was executed from 1989 to 1993. The objective was to define the recommendation for the optimisation of water quality conservation. The results of the study show that the quality at most locations of the river during the dry season has exceeded the water quality objectives for its beneficial water uses. It is recomended that the domestic and industrial pollution load has to be reduced for water quality conservation. Smaller unit domestic waste treatment and centralised industrial waste treatment are recommended for pollution control. For further development it is recommended to propagate clean technology and to prefer giving licences to industries with low water demand. Regular monitoring must be carried out for effective water quality control.