Refuse pollution of seas and oceans is not visible and the effects are difficult to assess. Attention to this problem has emerged seriously only since the 1980s. Marine scientists and environmental groups have been obtaining various data, however, and have indicated serious problems on a global scale to human values. Health, ecology, fisheries, commerce, recreation, etc., are areas of concern. The Black Sea may be as polluted as the world seas as a whole.

Refuse concentration of the oceans globally and of the Black Sea was estimated by the materials balance principle. A conceptual model, based upon the entropy principle, provides a means to estimate the energy of refuse cleanup. The model provides a rationale as to why the strategy for control must be containment of refuse.