For all water bodies especially for sea, lakes, and ground waters it is very important that nutrient pollution is the least possible (minimal). From municipal and industrial waste waters where considerable amount of nutrients is expected it is possible to remove nutrients with biological treatment. The first step is usually aerobic activated sludge treatment and the second step is combined anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic step in different combinations. A very effective process for nitrogen removal is anoxic activated sludge system. It is very important that in the first aerobic step complete nitrification is achieved.
In our laboratory denitrification kinetics was studied. The objective of this study was determination of denitrification velocity and attendance of different parallel phenomena such as nitrite, disappearance of nitrate and nitrite, sulphide formation, etc.
Denitrification process was studied in two systems, in closed system (such as in closed reactors for denitrification) and in open systems (such as in open denitrification tanks). We found out that denitrification rate in closed systems was from about 8 to 52 mg/l.h and was dependent on activated sludge type, sludge concentration, and temperature of the system. In open system (such as in an anoxic aeration tank) the rate of denitrification was lower than in closed system; it was from 4 to 15 mg/l.h dependent on activated sludge type, sludge concentration, and temperature of the system. Experiments were carried out in the range of temperature from 20° to 30°C.