As part of a prospective cohort study among triathletes to determine a relationship between the microbiological quality of fresh bathing water and the risk of acquiring an intestinal infection, the exposure of the triathletes to microbiological contaminants was assessed. Waters were collected at seven triathlons (swimming course 1–1.5km) held in the summer of 1993 and 1994 to have a range of water qualities. All were influenced by sewage effluents, most also by agricultural run-off. Samples were collected several weeks before the event to establish a sampling programme (1993) and during the actual exposure of the triathletes (1993 and 1994) and examined for thermotolerant coliforms alone (samples preceding the event) and for E. coli, faecal enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, F-specific RNAphages, enteroviruses (1993 and 1994) and for thermophilic Campylobacter, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1993). The samples taken in the weeks before the exposure showed significant differences in thermotolerant coliform concentration between locations, depths and times. Also during swimmer exposure, significant differences occurred in microorganism levels at the different sampling points over the swimming course. As the triathletes swam as a group, they were exposed to approximately the same water at the same time. The geometric mean concentration was used to characterise each site. In the epidemiological study, the risk of an intestinal infection correlated with the concentration of thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli but not with the other parameters. The geometric mean concentration of thermotolerant coliforms at the triathlons ranged from 11–330/100mL and 54–1,200/100mL E. coli. Ranking of the seven sites by faecal pollution level, based on the geometric mean concentration of a faecal indicator, resulted in a different ranking for each indicator. At the fresh water sites studied, only the ratio between the geometric mean density of E. coli and thermotolerant coliforms was constant. The ratio between the other parameters related to faecal pollution (faecal enterococci, F-specific RNA phages, enteroviruses) varied considerably. Water quality standards relating to faecal pollution can only be based on parameters that show a significant correlation with risk of intestinal illness.
Assessment of the exposure of swimmers to microbiological contaminants in fresh waters
G. J. Medema, I. A. van Asperen, A. H. Havelaar; Assessment of the exposure of swimmers to microbiological contaminants in fresh waters. Water Sci Technol 1 June 1997; 35 (11-12): 157–163. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1997.0727
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