Applicability of the rock-bed filtration technique was investigated through pilot-plant experiments in Bangkok, Thailand. Polluted canal water was used as horizontal flow influent to two reactor channels filled with rocks. During one year operation, HRT, filter media, and aeration mode, were changed in several runs. The results showed that 1) the rock-bed filtration with aeration and the HRT more than 6 h can successfully improve polluted klong water by reducing the pollutants (e.g. 60-120mg/L of SS to 20-40 mg/L and 15-30 mg/L of BOD to 5-20 mg/L); 2) main removal mechanism seems to be the sedimentation resulting from the settleability enhanced by aeration, and the biofilm attached onto rocks also works in the reduction of soluble organic matter; 3) a combination of three rock sizes arranged in descending order showed best results; 4) longer HRT (13 h) produces better effluent but is not so effective if it exceeds 9 hours; 5) 60-70% of sediment IL was decomposed in a year, and porosity in rock beds reduced approximately 16%.