On the basis of a literature study the sources and pathways of water, nitrogen and phosphor are identified. The mean annual load is related to the number of inhabitants and given in mass or volume per capita and year. The toilets are identified as predominant sources of N and P. 60% of nitrogen and 80% of phosphor are concentrated in 2 liters or 1% of the water flow. The drainage system is a diluting system. The introduction of waste water separation at the source is recognized to be most effective to improve the surface waters quality. Innovative source separating technologies are recommended for modern drainages' future.
Fluxes of nutrients in urban drainage systems: assessment of sources, pathways and treatment techniques
Thilo Herrmann, Uwe Klaus; Fluxes of nutrients in urban drainage systems: assessment of sources, pathways and treatment techniques. Water Sci Technol 1 October 1997; 36 (8-9): 167–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1997.0661
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