This report presents the main components of a system for the model-based control of aerobic biological wastewater treatment plants. The crucial component is a model which is linked to the actual processes via several interfaces and which contains a unit which can immediately follow up the current process state. The simulation calculation of the model is based on data which are yielded by on-line measuring devices. If the sensors should fail at times, there are available a number of alternative concepts, some of which are based on the calculations of artificial neural networks or linear methods.