Chlorination/dechlorination and advanced disinfection processes (UV irradiation, ozonation, membrane filtration) have been reviewed in terms of their efficiency, regrowth potential, design parameters, experimental set-up, scale-up and industrial experiences. Existing results show the great influence of water quality, in particular of suspended matter concentration and organic content.
The efficiency and reliability of these processes are evaluated for different reuse applications. The critical analysis of the literature data and experimental results highlights UV irradiation as an effective and competitive advanced disinfection process. Ozonation is a viable solution in case of higher requirements for water quality including virus and protozoa removal. Ultrafiltration is a highly efficient process producing an excellent quality and totally disinfected effluent, particularly recommended for groundwater recharge and potable wastewater reuse. The choice between these advanced disinfection technologies depends on wastewater quality, existing standards, specific reuse applications and wastewater treatment work capacity.