An auxiliary Wetland Reclamation Facility (WRF) was constructed to receive stabilization pond treated sewage and further treat it with water hyacinth ponds, chemical flocculation, filtration and ultraviolet light disinfection. This was the first facility in Hawaii which was approved to produce the highest quality reclaimed water using alternative treatment schemes. We assessed the effectiveness of the WRF by monitoring water samples after each of the WRF treatment schemes for five genetically different groups of sewage borne microorganisms (fecal coliform, enterococci, C. perfringens, FRNA phage, total heterotrophic bacteria). The concentrations of all fecal indicator microoganisms, especially FRNA phase were low in the influent water to the WRF indicating that extended pond treatment may be especially effective in removing human viruses from sewage. The WRF treatment scheme was calculated to be able to reduce >99.99% of fecal coliform and therefore was able to produce an effluent meeting the non-potable, unrestricted reuse standard of a geometric means of <1 fecal coliform/100 ml.

This content is only available as a PDF.