Membrane processes have recently been applied much more extensively by South African industry. A number of the older plants have suffered from fouling problems, sometimes brought on by changes in the feed stream. Newer installations are tending to apply the techniques of Cleaner Production to more closely integrate the membrane process into the manufacturing process and to reduce the size of the installation. There has been a trend to investigate methods of using the brine in place of discharging it to the environment. Membrane related research is still very active and a range of current initiatives is provided.

This content is only available as a PDF.