In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.
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Research Article| May 01 2001
Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia
Water Sci Technol (2001) 43 (10): 117–124.
A. Bahri, C. Basset, F. Queslati, F. Brissaud; Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2001; 43 (10): 117–124. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0597
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