This paper aims to use quantitative risk analysis, risk modelling and simulation modelling tools to assess the performance of a proprietary single house grey water recycling system. A preliminary Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP) identified the main hazards, both health related and economic, associated with installing the recycling system in a domestic environment. The health related consequences of system failure were associated with the presence of increased concentrations of micro-organisms at the point of use, due to failure of the disinfection system and/or the pump. The risk model was used to assess the increase in the probability of infection for a particular genus of micro-organism, Salmonella spp, during disinfection failure. The increase in the number of cases of infection above a base rate rose from 0.001% during normal operation, to 4% for a recycling system with no disinfection. The simulation model was used to examine the possible effects of pump failure. The model indicated that the anaerobic COD release rate in the system storage tank increases over time and dissolved oxygen decreases during this failure mode. These conditions are likely to result in odour problems.
Small scale water recycling systems - risk assessment and modelling
C. Diaper, A. Dixon, D. Butler, A. Fewkes, S. A. Parsons, M. Strathern, T. Stephenson, J. Strutt; Small scale water recycling systems - risk assessment and modelling. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2001; 43 (10): 83–90. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0587
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