In the Netherlands, interest in advanced treatment is increasing now that almost all wastewater treatment plants apply full biological treatment and nutrient removal. The resulting effluents have an excellent quality which can be improved further by applying advanced treatment processes like flocculating filtration, membrane filtration, UV or activated carbon, and others. The treated effluent can be re-used for various purposes, as process water, household water, urban water, for groundwater suppletion and drinking water. Nowadays many applications are investigated. In order to confirm the applicability pilot test investigations are done at various WWTPs. The results are promising; the cost estimations show increasing prospects. This will finally lead to the maturity of the advanced treatment. It will certainly contribute to a more sustainable water cycle.
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Research Article| July 01 2001
What to do after nutrient removal?
Jaap H.J.M. van der Graaf
Water Sci Technol (2001) 44 (1): 129–135.
Jaap H.J.M. van der Graaf; What to do after nutrient removal?. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2001; 44 (1): 129–135. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0031
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