Recent years have seen the introduction of new and varied designs of activated sludge plants. With increasing needs for higher efficiencies and lower costs, the possibility of a plant that operates more effectively has created the need for tools that can be used to evaluate and compare designs at the design stage. One such tool is the operating space diagram. It is the aim of this paper to present this tool and demonstrate its application and relevance to design using a simple case study. In the case study, use of the operating space diagram suggested changes in design that would improve the flexibility of the process. It also was useful for designing suitable control strategies.

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