Water quality measurements of surface runoff have been carried out in selected residential and industrial zones in urban areas, in which yearly mean precipitation is 1,225 mm. The concentrations of constituents in the surface runoff were measured at sampling sites categorized by land use type in the residential zone, and by industry type in the industrial zone. The water quality constituents of BOD5, COD, SS, NO3-N, TKN, PO4-P, TP, n-Hexane extracts, Cr, Cu, Pb and Fe were analyzed. The event mean concentrations (EMCs) of COD, SS, TKN and TP in the residential zone were 313 mg/L, 279 mg/L, 8.45 mg/L, 1.98 mg/L, and those in the industrial zone were 80 mg/L, 106 mg/L, 5.07 mg/L, and 1.93 mg/L, respectively. Cumulative load curves were created to analyze the first-flushing effect of each pollutant related to the pollutant, the rainfall event, and the land use type. No general relationship between the cumulative load and runoff has been established. The degree of first-flushing effect by constituents was in the following order; TKN>COD>SS>HEM>TP>PO4-P. The correlations between SS and other constituents were analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of the physical treatment process to control the surface runoff in urban areas. Based on the correlation of constituents with SS, high treatment efficiency of SS, heavy metals, organic matter, and TP was expected. The unit pollutant loading rates of COD, SS, TKN, TP, Cr and Pb in the residential zone were 2,392, 2,130, 64.6, 15.1, 0.31, and 1.83 kg/ha/yr, and those in the industrial zone were 612, 812, 38.7, 14.8, 0.51 and 0.82 kg/ha/yr, respectively.
Research Article| May 01 2002
Characterization of surface runoff in urban areas
Water Sci Technol (2002) 45 (9): 249-254.
J.S. Choe, K.W. Bang, J.H. Lee; Characterization of surface runoff in urban areas. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2002; 45 (9): 249–254. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2002.0251
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