Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used for the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics and is considered an endocrine disruptor. Special in vitro test systems and animal experiments showed a weak estrogenic activity. Aquatic wildlife especially could be endangered by waste water discharges. To manage possible risks arising from BPA emissions the major fluxes need to be investigated and the sources of the contamination of municipal treatment plants need to be determined. In this study, five major industrial point sources, two different household areas and the influent and effluent of the corresponding treatment plant (WWTP) were monitored simultaneously at a plant serving 120,000 population equivalents. A paper producing plant was the major BPA contributor to the influent load of the wastewater treatment plant. All the other emissions from point sources, including the two household areas, were considerably lower. The minimum elimination rate in the WTTP could be determined at 78% with an average of 89% of the total BPA-load. For a possible pollution-forecast, or for a comparison between different point sources, emission factors based on COD-emissions were calculated for industrial and household point sources at BPA/COD-ratios between 1.4 ×10−6-125×10−6 and 1.3×10−6-6.3×10−6, respectively.
Skip Nav Destination
Research Article| May 01 2003
Bisphenol A emission factors from industrial sources and elimination rates in a sewage treatment plant
Water Sci Technol (2003) 47 (10): 117–122.
M. Fuerhacker; Bisphenol A emission factors from industrial sources and elimination rates in a sewage treatment plant. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2003; 47 (10): 117–122. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2003.0553
Download citation file: