The in situ fluorescent antibody and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods are very useful in the in situ detection of specific bacteria like nitrifiers in a biofilm. In this study, simultaneous staining using the FISH and in situ fluorescent antibody methods was examined. As a result, no specific fluorescence was observed with either method when FISH was performed followed by the in situ fluorescent antibody method; however, when the in situ fluorescent antibody method was performed first followed by FISH, specific fluorescence was observed in both cases. Moreover, it was suggested that the detection specificities of FISH and the in situ fluorescent antibody method are almost identical.

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