The aim of this study was to formulate an integrated wastewater management model for Harare, Zimbabwe, based on current thinking. This implies that wastewater is treated/disposed of as close to the source of generation as possible. Resource recovery and reuse in a local thriving urban agriculture are integrated into this model. Intervention strategies were considered for controlling water, nitrogen and phosphorus flows to the lake. In the formulation of strategies, Harare was divided into five major operational areas of high-, medium-, and low-density residential areas, and also commercial and industrial areas. Specific options were then considered to suit landuse, development constraints and socio-economic status for each area, within the overall criteria of limiting nutrient inflows into the downstream Lake Chivero. Flexible and differential solutions were developed in relation to built environment, population density, composition of users, ownership, future environmental demands, and technical, environmental, hygienic, social and organisational factors. Options considered include source control by the users (residents, industries, etc.), using various strategies like implementation of toilets with source separation, and natural methods of wastewater treatment. Other possible strategies are invoking better behaviour through fees and information, incentives for cleaner production, and user responsibility through education, legislative changes and stricter controls over industry.

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