This study was conducted with a BNR (biological nutrient removal) process with an external nitrification and switching arrangement of anoxic and oxic stages. It was observed that the SPRR (specific phosphorus release rate) and SDNR(specific denitrification rate) were greatly affected by the organic loads, and SDNR had a higher temperature effect than other kinetic rates including nitrification. It was further observed that the stoichiometric values like PHA (poly hydroxyalkanoate) stored for P release and PHA consumed for P uptake also varied. Variations of % Px(phosphorus content) and PHA as intracellular matter suggest the PAOs were more active at lower temperatures with this process configuration, where more than 70% of NH4-N and phosphorus were removed at temperatures below 10°.

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