The combination of microbial reduction and further microbial oxidation of iron was applied to the treatment of food-processing wastewater and recovery of ammonium. Fe2+ ions were formed by iron-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Ammonium was recovered by co-precipitation with negatively charged iron hydroxides produced during oxidation of Fe2+ by iron-oxidizing bacteria under microaerophilic conditions. The value-added by-product of this process can be used as a slowly released ammonium fertilizer.

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