Persistent polar pollutants (P3) are difficult to degrade in standard waste water treatment plants. As a result, they end up in the effluent and are emitted to the surface water. In some areas, this problem is aggravated through “closed loop recycling”, causing concentrations of P3 in surface water to build up over time. This could cause violation of (future) EU regulations. In the P-THREE project, various alternative waste water treatment techniques are investigated regarding their effectiveness in eliminating these substances, especially membrane bioreactor treatment and advanced oxidation processes, MBR and AOP. The integrated systems analysis which is the subject of this paper assesses these techniques in a broader systems context: (1) the life-cycle of the P3, (2) the life cycle of the WWTPs, and (3) the WWTP life cycle costs.

This content is only available as a PDF.