Single-stage Nitrogen removal using Anammox and Partial nitritation (SNAP) process was newly developed as an economical nitrogen removal process for ammonium rich wastewaters. The experimental studies for the evaluation of SNAP process were carried out using a novel biofilm reactor, in which hydrophilic net-type acryl fiber biomass carrier was applied. This SNAP reactor was operated under operational conditions of pH 7.5–7.7, 35 °C and DO 2–3 mg/L, and 60 to 80% of influent NH4-N was removed under loading rate of 0.48 kg-N/m3/d. Through the DNA analysis of the attached sludge, it was made clear that ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox bacteria coexisted in the attach-immobilized sludge on the acryl fiber biomass carrier. Favorable conditions for the growth of anammox bacteria were created inside attach-immobilized nitrifying sludge. Two kinds of anammox bacteria and two kinds of AOB were detected in the SNAP sludge. Existence ratios of anammox and AOB were estimated to be 15% and 8.7%, respectively, based on the obtained clone numbers. This coexisting condition was confirmed by the FISH image of SNAP sludge and its confocal laser scanning microscope.

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