In recent years more and more on-line sensors have been used on different structures of urban water systems (UWS, i.e. wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), waterworks (WW), sewer systems). This development is influenced and driven by numerous trends, which will be discussed in this paper. For a better understanding, the discussion is illustrated with a factual example. The new possibilities of on-line measurement and automation technologies will also change the way as UWS will be planned, built and operated.

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