Bio-Toilet is the name of a dry closet or composting toilet using sawdust as an artificial soil matrix for bioconversion of human excrement into compost. Since feces and urine contain several chemicals such as pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disruptors and they may still remain in compost after biological reaction in the Bio-Toilet, it is required to examine the possibility of soil and/or groundwater pollution by applying compost to a soil system in farmland. In this study, toxicity of Bio-Toilet compost was evaluated by measuring the viability of human neuroblast (NB-1). The bio-assay was applied to the water extract of compost from the Bio-Toilets which are in practical use in Japan. The assay results showed that (1) the extract of feces showed no toxicity, and the extracts of unused sawdust had no or low level toxicity and (2) the extracts of composts had heavier toxicity than unused sawdust. These results implied that some chemicals that have toxicity were generated by biological reactions or accumulated in toilet system. The bio-assay results with fractionated organic matter by its molecular weight showed that the small molecular weight fraction had stronger toxicity than other fractions. The effect of inorganic matter on toxicity was examined by comparing the dose-response relationship of the extracts of compost with positive control with 1M of sodium chloride solution. The comparison showed that sodium concentration in the extract was too low to develop the toxicity and the effect of inorganic matter could be neglected in this study.

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