Biodegradation of organic matter in the sediment affects both the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlaying water and material flux into the water body. In the present study, a mathematical model was developed to describe the DO dynamics and related organic transformation in the sediment after a pulsed load of rich organic, sediment. The model includes DO diffusion at the sediment–water interface and inside the sediment, diagenetic reactions of particulate organic to soluble organic, substances, biodegradation of soluble organic, and related DO consumption. The model can simulate sediment oxygen demand (SOD) in a dynamic system after a sudden organic load on the sediment and the flux of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic can be predicted. In addition, laboratory experiments were conducted using SOD chambers to investigate the SOD dynamics and sediment material fluxes. The sediment of the batch SOD tests was loaded with fish food at various rates for the sudden organic input. Numerical simulations for SOD and organic fluxes compared well with the experimental measurements. The results demonstrate that the model can be used to predict the effect of sediment pollutants on the water quality of surface waters.

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