Biofilms play a major role in many water reclamation and reuse technologies. Normally, wherever there is water, a support surface and nutrients available, a biofilm will form. In some cases, this may result in problems for the water treatment system, due to biofouling or the growth of pathogenic or other unwanted microbes, but more frequently, the biofilm serves a very useful purpose by biodegrading organic contaminants in the water or by converting unwanted inorganic materials into harmless ones. Biofilms are commonly found associated with membrane reactors and filtration systems used in water reclamation and reuse systems, and are often a critical component. They are also found in soils where they may impact water injection or removal systems, or in situ bioremediation. Knowledge of the way biofilms form, how they grow and how to control them is critical for effective design and operation of many water reclamation facilities. This paper explores the modes of formation and growth of biofilms, modern methods for exploring the structure and function of biofilms, and how to control their growth. This paper also presents details on our development of microelectrode sensor arrays for continuous soil pore water quality monitoring.

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