In a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process containing a variety of bacteria, the bacterial adhesion to the membrane surface, prior to cake formation, causes an increased filtration resistance. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens, commonly found in the municipal wastewater treatment process with activated sludge, was used to show the effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on bacterial adhesion to the membrane surface in the MBR. Of the various roles of EPS in promoting membrane fouling, the adhesion of bacteria to the membrane surface was calculated using the specific cake resistance (α, m/kg). Although the amount of EPS binding with bacteria was increased by the addition of Ca2 + , there was no significant effect on the bacterial growth. The results of the particle size distribution showed that the addition of Ca2 +  increased flocculation, allowing the formation of a complex with the bacteria and EPS. In order to identify the effects of the addition of Ca2 +  on the hydrophobicity, the contact angle was also measured. The result showed that the addition of Ca2 +  showed no significant differences in the hydrophobicity, even though there was an increase in flocculation. With the bacteria containing a higher EPS concentration, a higher specific cake resistance was observed. From the results of the adhesion experiment, which was conducted with various EPS levels, displayed as the COD and TOC concentration, an increased EPS concentration was shown to promote bacterial adhesion to the membrane surface.

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