This paper evaluated the performance and suitability of a resources and nutrients oriented decentralized greywater treatment system which uses a submerged spiral wound module. This greywater treatment system is aimed at treating and recovering the resources present in the wastewater. The study revealed that the UF membrane filtration system was able to maintain a permeate flux between 6 and 10 L/m2/h. TOC can be reduced from the influent value of 161 to 28.6 mg/L in the permeate, meaning an average elimination rate of 83.4%. In addition, soluble nutrients such as ammonia and phosphorus can pass through the UF membrane and remain in the permeate. The total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the permeate were 16.7 and 6.7 mg/L respectively. The permeate was low in turbidity (below 1 NTU) and free of suspended solids and E. coli and had an excellent physical appearance. The permeate can be used in gardening and agriculture for irrigation and soil fertilization or alternatively for toilet flushing after disinfection. The retentate generated in this system can be treated with blackwater and kitchen waste in an anaerobic digester at a later stage for producing biogas or compost.
Resources and nutrients oriented greywater treatment for non-potable reuses
Fangyue Li, Joachim Behrendt, Knut Wichmann, Ralf Otterpohl; Resources and nutrients oriented greywater treatment for non-potable reuses. Water Sci Technol 1 June 2008; 57 (12): 1901–1907. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2008.601
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