Australian experience at five research sites where stormwater and reclaimed water have been stored in aquifers prior to reuse, have yielded valuable information about water treatment processes in anaerobic and aerobic aquifers. One of these sites is the stormwater to potable water ASTR project at the City of Salisbury, a demonstration project within the broader EC project ‘RECLAIM WATER’. A framework for characterising the effectiveness of such treatment for selected organic chemicals, natural organic matter, and pathogens is being developed for inclusion in new Australian Guidelines for Management of Aquifer Recharge. The combination of pre-treatments (including passive systems such as reed beds) and aquifer treatment effectiveness in relation to source waters and intended uses of recovered water will be described. Advantages and disadvantages of various types of pre-treatments in relation to effectiveness and sustainability of managed aquifer recharge will be discussed taking account of aquifer characteristics. These observations will be consolidated into a draft set of principles to assist in selection of engineered treatments compatible with passive treatment in aquifers.