This paper presents the comparison of nine nanofiltration membranes to treat water coming from an aquifer recharged with wastewater and used as municipal supply in the Tula Valley, Mexico. The comparison was made based on (a) the amount of water produced; (c) the capability to produce a <1 mg TOC/L effluent without entirely eliminating salts, (b) the removal of specific organic and microbiological pollutants, and (c) the reduction of toxicity and mutagenicity from water. From the tested membranes, only four produce an effluent with <1 TOC mg/L, and three totally retained dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and hydroxytoluene butylate. Influent mutagenicity (Ames test) was negative but these was a certain degree of toxicity when Tetrahymena pyriformis was used as indicator. Toxicity was partially reduced by some of the NF membranes. The best membrane had a flux of 95 L m−2h−1 and removal efficiencies of 98% for TOC, 92% for AUV254, and 92% for TDS. The permeate had a final hardness of 76 mg/L and an alkalinity of 124 mg/L. Additionally, this membrane removed totally specific organic compounds, total and fecal coliforms and almost all the somatic coliphages.
Use of nanofiltration for potable water from an aquifer recharged with wastewater
A. Aguilar, B. Jiménez, J. E. Becerril, L. P. Castro; Use of nanofiltration for potable water from an aquifer recharged with wastewater. Water Sci Technol 1 March 2008; 57 (6): 927–933. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2008.189
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