The last case of polio in Cyprus caused by a wild-type poliovirus occurred in 1995. Since then Cyprus belongs to the countries considered poliovirus-free by the WHO. The aim of this study was to confirm the absence of any circulating wild-type polioviruses and to monitor vaccine-derived polioviruses in Cyprus by analysis of sewages. During the course of this study no wild-type polioviruses were identified, although the identification of viable oral poliovirus vaccine isolates confirmed the presence and circulation of poliovirus vaccine strains in sewage in Cyprus.