Performances of an anaerobic rotating biological contactor (AnRBC) have been tested with winery wastewater. A 50 litres pilot has been used during a 4 month period. It was observed that the start-up took place in one month until the biofilm stabilized. Optimal performances were obtained with a COD removal close to 80%, with the following conditions: temperature of wastewater at 20°C, volume load of 2 kg COD m−3 d−1, mass load of 0.3 kg COD kg MVS−1 d−1, surface load of 0.11 kg COD m−2 d−1. However, it is possible to enhance some experimental conditions to obtain better results, especially in increasing the total surface of the biodisk and in controlling temperature to the mesophilic optimal value (37°C). In such conditions it is estimated that for 80% COD removal, volume load could approach 20 to 25 kg COD m−3 d−1.