This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation of a wastewater treatment system. It briefly references the methods currently used to evaluate prediction accuracy and uncertainty and discusses the relevance of uncertainty evaluations in model applications. The paper aims to raise awareness and initiate a comprehensive discussion among professionals on model prediction accuracy and uncertainty issues. It also aims to identify future research needs. Ultimately the goal of such a discussion would be to generate transparent and objective methods of explicitly evaluating the reliability of model results, before they are implemented in an engineering decision-making context.

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