High concentrations of manganese and iron in the Saigon River are major problems for the water supply in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. To identify their sources and leaching processes, we surveyed water quality along the Saigon River and ran batch leaching tests using soil and sediment samples. Two important leaching processes were identified: acidic leaching from acid sulfate soil (ASS) in the middle reaches of the river, and Mn dissolution and Fe reduction from sediments in the downstream reaches. Low pH caused the concurrent release of Fe and Mn from the ASS. In contrast, anoxia caused the release of Fe but not Mn from the sediments, whereas low pH facilitated Mn dissolution. Sediments are a more important source of Mn because of their higher Mn contents (10 times) and release rates (14 times) than those from ASS.

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