Two estrogen fate and transformation models were integrated with a comprehensive activated sludge model (ASM) to predict estrogen removal based on biomass and solids production. Model predictions were evaluated against published full-scale plant data as well as results from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed synthetic wastewater. The estrogen fate model relating the rate of total estrogen degradation to soluble estrogen concentrations successfully predicted estrogen removals when compared with measured concentrations. Model fit 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) biodegradation rate constant was 19 to 43% of the estrone (E1) value and 31 to 72% of the 17β-estradiol (E2) value.

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