A review of material flow analysis (MFA) tools, comparison of case studies and analysis of approximately 20 MFA tools (static, semi-empirical models) are performed. The evaluation of the quantification procedures revealed several deficits in the approaches. The following principal complications for a reliable quantification of inputs from the urban water system are identified: (1) frequently insufficient data for urban system model validation (e.g. combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges); (2) the necessity for additionally quantifying diffuse sources in order to verify modelling results at basin scale, where both input pathways occur, and (3) the contradictions arising when describing the highly dynamic urban system with the help of static MFA models. However, a wise selection of appropriate calculation procedures with regard to the concrete systems characteristics and available data can minimize the model deviations significantly. Criteria and suggestions for designing adapted quantification procedures are given.

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