Rapid population growth, industrial development and stringent demand for treatment of wastewater require developing and emerging economies to upgrade existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) or planning new WWTPs. In the context of unavailability or unaffordability of land and resources for infrastructure expansion, low cost, small footprint, less energy consumption and product reuse are some of the major factors to be considered when either upgrading or designing new WWTPs in developing and emerging economies. Although the transition from activated sludge to biofilm processes has partly solved these challenges, there are innovations that can make the processes even more compact and more efficient. Newly developed CFIC (Continuous Flow Intermittent Cleaning) process is the next generation moving bed biological wastewater treatment system and is an example for addressing these issues. The CFIC pilot studies showed promising performance for biological COD and nitrogen removal as well as particle separation facilitating wastewater reuse.


  • CFIC (Continuous Flow Intermittent Cleaning) process is the next generation of the well-known MBBR process.

  • CFIC process was studied for nitrogen removal by nitrification and denitrification.

  • Bio-solids separation was studied.

  • Oxygen transfer efficiency of CFIC and MBBR was compared by off-gas testing.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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