The use of reclaimed water as an alternative source is a sustainable way forward for an arid country like The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sewage contains organic and inorganic pollutants from households and industrial sources that may not be removed during treatment. In this study, seeds of Cicer arietinum were germinated using six different concentrations of treated water from the Tabuk wastewater treatment plant and tap water was used as control. The physicochemical properties such as total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, and turbidity values of treated water were higher which gradually decreased on dilution with tap water. The amount of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate was in higher concentration in treated water as compared to control. The use of 40% treated water (T3) improved the germination percentage, speed of germination and germination index of C. arietinum. The phytotoxicity test reveals that undiluted treated water (T6) is not fit for direct use on plants. All the investigated treatments confirmed that the use of more than 40% of treated water decreased the fresh weight and dry weight of the seedlings as compared to control. The results are encouraging and help in attaining water sustainability in the Tabuk region.


  • In KSA agricultural practices is difficult to carry out due to water scarcity.

  • To the best knowledge, it is the first report of the use of reclaimed water from Tabuk region.

  • The use of more than 40% of treated water is not fit for direct use on plants.

  • The results helps in attaining the water sustainability in the Tabuk region.

  • It decreases the load of desalination of Red Sea and helps to achieve the VISION 2030 of KSA.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
This content is only available as a PDF.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).