ReliefF algorithm was used to analyze the weight of each water quality evaluation factor, and then based on the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used to optimize the kernel width factor and hyperparameters of RVM to build a water quality evaluation model, and the experimental results of RVM, PSO-RVM, ReliefF-RVM and PSO-ReliefF-RVM were compared. The results show that ReliefF algorithm, combined with threshold value, selects 5 evaluation factors with significant weight from 8 evaluation factors, which reduces the amount of data used in the model, CSI index is used to calculate the separability of each evaluation factor combination. The results show that the overall separability of the combination is best when the evaluation factor with significant weight is reserved. When different water quality evaluation factors were included, the evaluation accuracy of PSO-ReliefF-RVM model reached 95.74%, 14.23% higher than that of RVM model, which verified the effectiveness of PSO algorithm and ReliefF algorithm, and had a higher guiding significance for the study of water quality grade evaluation. It has good practical application value.
By comparing the prediction results of PSO-BP neural network and AdaBoost-BP neural network, it is found that the AdaBoost-BP evaluation model has higher accuracy, better stability and better application value.